Citizenship was the mark of political belonging in Europe in the twentieth century, while estate, religion, party, class, and nation lost political significance in the century of extremes. Struggles for Belonging. Citizenship in Europe, 1900–2020 (OUP, 2021) demonstrates this thesis by examining the legal institution of citizenship with its deciding influence on the limits of a political community, on in- and exclusion. Citizenship determined a person’s protection, equality, and freedom and thus his or her chances in life and survival. This book recounts the history of citizenship in Europe as the history of European statehood in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, doing so from three vantage points: first, as the development of a legal institution crucial to European constitutionalism; second, as a measure of an individual’s opportunities for self-fulfillment ranging from freedom to totalitarian subjugation; and, third, as a succession of alternating, often sharply divergent political regimes, considered from the perspective of their inclusivity and exclusivity and its justification. Continue reading
The great waves of global migration into and out of Europe such as those that preceded World War I, followed World War II, and again drew our attention in 2015 inevitably challenge the fixity or stability of a country’s constitutional identity. Whether official ideologies are those of assimilation, integration, pluralism, or multiculturalism seems not to matter; challenges will arise no matter. Constitutional identities are not just ensembles of laws and an accumulated national jurisprudence. They are grounded in cultural configurations that evolve over long periods of time but are, for the most part, taken for granted. Continue reading
Citizenship was the mark of political affiliation in Europe in the twentieth century. While estate, religion, party, class, and nation lost political significance in the century of extremes, citizenship advanced to become the decisive category of political affiliation.
In the century’s upheavals and political struggles, the legal institution of citizenship had a decisive influence on the limits of a political community, on in- and exclusion, and thus on an individual’s opportunities in life. Its enfranchisement included the obligation to risk life and limb for the survival of one’s country in exchange for the right to protection, participation in the expanding political and social rights in the democracies and welfare states of Europe and ultimately access to the new legal status of being a citizen of the European Union. Continue reading
L’Europe connaît actuellement trois crises dont la conjonction soumet l’intégration européenne à l’épreuve la plus difficile qu’elle ait jamais connue depuis la constitution de l’Union et menace sa pérennité Continue reading
The current massive influx of refugees into Germany – estimated for the year 2015 at about 1 million persons – is considered by nearly all observers to both reflect and contribute to a multifaceted and long-term crisis. Continue reading
Recognition of the right to refuse military service seems at first glance to be inherently paradoxical. Yet over the course of recent decades, with the broadening of democratic discourse, democracies have begun to recognize even opposition to military service on grounds of conscience—whether religious or otherwise. Continue reading
Der Fall der Mauer 1989 schien das Ende des harten Gehäuses der Staatlichkeit in Europa einzuläuten. Gerade in Europa hatte diese Vorstellung eine besondere historische Bedeutung. Jener Kontinent, der Jahrhunderte zuvor den Staat hervorgebracht und dessen territoriale Demarkationen zu scharfen, militärisch bewehrten Grenzen ausgebaut hatte, befreite sich 1989 von einer Grenze, die zum Symbol für die ideologische Zweiteilung in antagonistische Machtsphären geworden war. Continue reading